Sodium, ammonium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sulfate and iron analyzed by io chromatography at the University of New Hampshire and and oxygen isotopes analyzed by W. Dansgaard (University of Copenhagen) from the 20D ice core (1984.5 - 1767 C.E.).
20D was electromechanically drilled (B. Koci) in 1984 from a site (65.01N, 44.87W, 2615 m a.s.l) 40 km southwest and up-ice from Dye 3.
This was the first ice core to demonstrate that anthropogenic source sulfate and nitrate are transported long distances. All drilling was powered by solar panels to avoid the possibility of local source contamination.
Research supported by EPA contract APP-0306-1983.
Examples of publications:
Mayewski, P.A., Lyons, W.B., Spencer, M.J., Twickler, M.S., Koci, B. Dansgaard, Davidson, C. and Honrath, R., 1986, Sulfate and nitrate concentrations from a South Greenland ice core, Science 232: 975-977.
Mayewski, P.A., Spencer, M.J., Lyons, W.B. and Twickler, M.S. 1987, Seasonal and spatial trends in South Greenland snow chemistry, Atmospheric Environment 21(4): 863-869.
Lyons, W.B., Mayewski, P.A., Spencer, M.J., Twickler, M.S. and Graedel, T.E., 1990, A Northern Hemispheric volcanic chemistry (1869-1984) record and climatic implications using a south Greenland ice core, Annals of Glaciol. 14: 176-182.
Lyons, W.B., Mayewski, P.A., Spencer, M.J. and Twickler, M.S., 1990, Nitrate concentrations in snow from remote areas: Implications for the global NOx flux, Biogeochemistry,9,211-222.
Mayewski, P. A., Spencer, M. J. and Lyons, W.B., 1992, A review of glaciochemistry with particular emphasis on the recent record of sulfate and nitrate. In Trace Gases and the Biosphere, Papers arising from the 1988 OIED Global Change Institute, Snowmass, CO., Moore III, Berrien and David Schimel, eds, 177-199.
Davidson, C.I., Jaffrezo, J.L. and Mayewski, P.A., 1992, Arctic air pollution as reflected in snowpits and ice cores, Pollution of the Arctic Atmosphere, ed. W. Sturges, Elsevier, 43-95.
Mayewski, P.A., Lyons, W.B., Spencer, M.J., Twickler, M.S., Buck, C.F. and Whitlow, S., 1990, An ice core record of atmospheric response to anthropogenic sulphate and nitrate, Nature 346(6284): 554-556.
Mayewski, P.A., Holdsworth, G., Spencer, M.J., Whitlow, S., Twickler, M.S., Morrison, M.C., K. F. Ferland and Meeker, L.D., 1993, Ice core sulfate from three northern hemisphere sites: Source and temperature forcing implications, Atmosph. Environ. 27A (17/18): 2915-2919.